Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Dragiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum OR Termez, Afghanistan) - 328 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Monday, February 12, 2018

Underwater archaeology reveals more Roman shipwrecks

More and more archaeological work is carried out under water and the Mediterranean is a proliferating source as new discoveries make the headlines on a regular base.

In the bay of Alexandria, three Roman shipwrecks have been discovered together with an Egyptian votive barge and a collection of small artefacts among which are gold coins from the reign of Emperor Augustus. Underwater archaeologists are expecting to expose a fourth shipwreck during this year’s mission (2018) as large wooden beams and pottery belonging to its presumed cargo have been located. Another interesting find is this crystal head which is probably representing Marc Antony.

Further north on a reef near the Cycladic island of Naxos, am underwater expedition located no less than eight shipwrecks from various periods of the Roman Empire. Diving teams are gearing up for the next exploration since these ships are lying at only 30 meter below sea level. In a first attempt, they have been dated between 100 BC and 300 AD.

More recently, scientists who were surveying the effects of climate change in the Black Sea discovered dozens of perfectly preserved wrecks from the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman eras. What makes this find unique is the fact that the water of the Black Sea below 150 meters contains no oxygen (anoxic) and thus cannot support organisms that usually thrive on organic material. This means that the wood and ropes are still in excellent conditions. The bulk of the wrecks are about 1300 years old but so far the oldest one is dated back to the 4th century BC.

Using two Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), researchers were able to “see” these wrecks at a depth of 1,800 meters. So far, they have explored a distance of 1,250 kilometers! It must be quite exciting for them to discover that the ship’s masts are still standing, their rudders are in place, and the cargoes and ship’s fitting are scattered on the deck. As detailed features of the ships became visible, they found that the fittings and equipment matched the drawings and descriptions we had till now.

Leading Professor Jon Adams, of the University of Southampton, said it all: 'This assemblage must comprise one of the finest underwater museums of ships and seafaring in the world'.

[Picture of the crystal head is from Ahmra Online]
[Picture of the shipwreck is from Archaeology News Network]

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