Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Drangiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum OR Termez, Afghanistan) - 328 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

In Search of the City of Persepolis

While the Palace of Persepolis is widely discussed and documented, the city that spread out of the foot of the dominating high plateau is hardly documented. Even in antiquity, the city of Persepolis is only mentioned by Diodorus who details the ferocious and bloody rampage of the Macedonian troops.

Until recently, archaeologists focused entirely and solely on the Palace built by Darius I and his successors but nobody had any idea of what the city of Persepolis must have looked like or even where to find it. Scrutinizing the surrounding land there is nothing to indicate the presence of a construction of any kind, but surely there must have been an important community there to support the needs of the Palace in provisions and services of all kinds.

Many cuneiform tablets have been unearthed in the area but as always, their translation and interpretation is a lengthy process. So far, however, some deciphered inscriptions are referring to business transactions specifying the quantity of goods that were produced or distributed.

Excavations based on recent geophysical surveys revealed that there were clusters of buildings, some of which were occupied by craftsmen, others by officials and still others were important enough to have belonged to the nobility attached to the Achaemenid court. The city of Persepolis was not densely populated but instead was spread over an area of several hundreds of hectares, leaving much open space in between the clusters of houses.

The surveys also revealed erratic straight lines all over the area which at places crossed each other at right angle. These lead scholars to determine that they belong to a pattern of canals that supplied the water necessary to the community and the maintenance of the fields, gardens and parks arranged in between the different settlements. It is obvious that for the Achaemenid kings this city layout was also a matter of prestige as they turned the desert into a paradise, their word for garden.

Since the construction of Persepolis was inspired by Pasargadae which was founded by Cyrus the Great less than a century before, the archaeologists took a closer look at the water canals of Pasargadae, which have been exposed over the years. Their pattern and gentle slopes are perfectly able to work for Persepolis as well. The next step was to locate the water source for Persepolis’ Palace and city. Satellite photography revealed the outline of a channel linking Persepolis to the Seyedan Mountains, some 15 kilometers to the east. The water is still flowing today and its quality is unique because all the other available water sources in the area are brackish.

The ensuing study of the soil had to provide information about the landscaping by extracting earth cores and examining the layer coinciding with Persepolis heydays. The results were quite revealing! At least five different types of trees were imported and grown successfully: plane trees, olive and walnut trees, cypresses and pine trees.


It is hard to imagine the luxuriant vegetation and the opulence that surrounded the Palace of Persepolis and witnessed by Alexander and his troops. Some parts of history definitely need to be rewritten, as far as I am concerned!

Some interesting views and reconstructions are available on this documentary aired by ARTE TV.

Sunday, March 26, 2017

New funding for the Tomb of Amphipolis

The Greek finances remain a doubtful and uncertain subject but it is now official: 2.5 million Euros will be made available for restoration works at Kasta Hill, better known as the Tomb of Amphipolis.

By now, the entire world is aware of this tomb were it only because of the many speculations that were fired into the media, especially in 2014 (click on the link Amphipolis to refresh your memory).

Since then, the wildest speculations have circulated about who would or could be buried in that tomb. The most fantastic suggestion was that it would be Alexander the Great in person simply based on the size of this tomb and the expensive construction. In the meantime, this theory has been luckily dismissed because of the number of historical records confirming that Alexander was buried in Alexandria in Egypt where his body was seen by many visitors for several hundreds of years. What a relief!

The fact remains that this tomb must have been built by a wealthy Macedonian nobleman or some member of the royal family after Alexander. Yet the theory linking this tomb to Hephaistion, Alexander’s closest friend, still survives because of the inscription ΠΑΡΕΛΑΒΟΝ that was deciphered next to the monogram of Hephaistion. History, however, has documented that Hephaistion’s funeral was held in Babylon at high expenses in the presence of Alexander, but that leaves the question as to what happened to his ashes.

By now, we know for certain that the Tomb of Amphipolis is a Macedonian tomb dating from the last quarter of the 4th century BC. It is far larger than the one ascribed to Philip II, the father of Alexander the Great, in Vergina. Excavations at Amphipolis have exposed the remains of five people, i.e. those of a woman of about 60 years old, two men aged 35-45, a newborn infant and a few fragments of a fifth person. These skeletal remains are presently undergoing DNA-examinations to cross-link them or to establish a relationship with skeletons found in the neighboring tombs.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Pella and Gadara, two more settlements for Alexander’s veterans

When Alexander returned from Egypt in 331 BC, he marched along the coast of the eastern Mediterranean. How close to the coast may be subject to debate but the fact remains that he had to send foraging parties into the hinterland. Alexander must have depleted much of the local provisions when he marched his troops through the region the year before as did his fleet that supported him and his troops on their way to Egypt, especially when crossing the Sinai. This being said, it is very plausible that his foraging parties had to move further inland when he returned. To that purpose, they must have exploited the lands east of the Dead Sea, Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee and that is exactly where we find cities like Gerasa, Pella, and Gadara which are said to be founded by Alexander.

The founding of Gerasa has been treated in an earlier blog (see:  Alexander founder of Gerasa). Some 45 kilometers north of that city lies the town of Pella (previously Pihilum) known to be named in honor of the city where Alexander was born. Pella flourished in Hellenistic times as it became a regional power in the maze of trade routes running through the city. It has been established that Pella was largely populated in Hellenistic times as it was a hub for merchants crossing the region. Under the rule of Seleucus, the city was named Apamea after his wife Apame.

After the death of Alexander, Gerasa, and the neighboring territories were annexed by the Ptolemies in 301 BC. At some time during the third and second centuries BC, the Seleucids took hold of the area and undertook a thorough Hellenization till by 64-63 BC it became a Roman province. The Romans, in order to properly govern Judea and Syria, created a Decapolis (see: Alexander founder of Gerasa), a group of ten cities that shared the same language, commercial relations, and political status. Each city enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy with their own Semitic, Nabataean, Aramean and Jewish culture. The members were according to PlinyDamascus (in Syria), Philadelphia (modern Amman in Jordan), Gerasa (now Jerash in Jordan), Scythopolis (now Beisan in the Jordan Valley, North Israel), Gadara (modern Umm Qays in Jordan) and once the capital of this Decapolis, Hippos (on the banks of Lake Tiberias in Israel), Dion (probably near Irbid in Jordan, but not yet discovered), Pella/Apamea (in the Jordan Valley, northwest of Amman in Jordan), Canatha (now Qanawat in Syria) and Raphana (probably north of Umm Qays in Jordan, but not yet discovered either). As part of the Decapolis, these cities shared the common political, cultural and commercial interests of the other members and enjoyed their Golden Age that lasted for about 150 years.

The Romans left their usual buildings like theaters and temples along familiar colonnaded streets in Pella. It is hard to imagine in today’s desert-like landscape that these cities were blessed with fertile soil and plenty of water, making them favorite stops on the busy trade routes between Europe and Asia. Let us not forget that beside goods and agricultural skills, Greek culture and language widely spread.

Another 30 kilometer onwards, we find the town of Gadara, today’s Umm Qays near the northern border of Jordan with Israel and Syria in the hills above the Jordan Valley. Since Gadara emerged in the wake of Alexander the Great as well as Pella/Apamea and Gerasa, it shares most of its history. It became part of the kingdom of the Seleucids and we know from Polybius that Antiochus III ruled here in 218 BC and that Gadara was coveted by both the Ptolemies and the Seleucids who captured and recaptured it time and again confirming the role it played on the trade routes with the east. The Seleucid kings renamed the city Antiochia or Antiochia Semiramis and even another Seleucia, as they turned the city into a center of Greek culture.

Gadara boomed under the Romans after Pompey conquered it in 63 BC. At that time, the reputation of the local poet Meleagros (131-61 BC) had already spread far and wide. He was a much admired Hellenistic author who wrote an anthology of other poets – a true statement of the city’s high cultural level. Gadara certainly deserved its surname of “Athens of the east” when in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD it became a center for philosophy, literature, and theater.

The ruins of Gadara are far less impressive than those of Gerasa mainly due to the fact that most of the city still lies underneath the old Ottoman village from the 18th-19th century that has been vacated in recent decennia. The spooky streets and buildings are hiding the Roman living quarters. The modern settlement leans closely to these crumbling walls and has inherited its medieval name of Umm Qays

The very top of the hill has been carefully excavated and exposes many of the official buildings. It is always a delight to enter an ancient city over the Cardo which here is paved with large blocks of black basalt. The Roman Theater on the right almost immediately calls for attention. It is entirely built of black basalt as well and offered seating for 3,000 people. This is generally called the West Theater as there are remains of another theater on the north side of town, which has largely been dismantled by the locals and recycled for their own contemporary constructions, leaving an overgrown field. Unlike the usual eastern oriented theaters, this theater is looking to the west so that the theater-goers would be sheltered from the strong eastern wind! The remains date generally from the first and second century AD and are overall in good condition. From the top tiers, , one has a most wonderful view over this biblical land on the eastern bank of the Jordan River where the Golan Heights and the Sea of Galilee shimmer at the horizon.

Back on the Cardo, one notices a number of vaulted spaces underneath the skene where once shops were set up. Even in antiquity, the theater-goers could be tempted by food and drinks or other entertainment commodities!

Then the Cardo reaches the Decumanus which has been well cleared and runs on for at least two kilometers to the west. Its black basalt pavement stands in sharp contrast with the white Corinthian limestone columns that separate the road from the sidewalk lined with shops of all kinds. The deep ruts in the pavement testify of the heavy traffic of carts with goods that were transported along the edge of this high plateau to nearby cities like Pella. In its heyday, this road ran all the way to the Mediterranean coast. Halfway there is an unknown sanctuary and a Nymphaeum next to still overgrown public baths from the 4th century.

Turning back, one encounters another large and very impressive Nympheum set in the same black and white stone combination as found on the Decumanus. To the right is an area called the Terrace Church dating from the 6th century. This is a strange mixture of all kinds of Roman remains from the 2nd century enhanced with columns from Byzantine and early Islamic times. It is not easy to figure out the pattern and discover a central square framing an octagonal space. Each corner of this octagonal is marked by a black basalt column and it is believed that this was an unusual inner sanctum. On the west side, there is a large entrance hall and on the north side another open space that looks like an atrium. This may have been a pilgrimage site for some important martyr, although no hard proof has been found so far. Like so many buildings in Gadara, this church was destroyed by the severe earthquake of 747 AD after which the city was abandoned.

The Decumanus looses itself further east past well-preserved city walls embracing the skeleton remains of the Ottoman houses and their crumbling walls. There must be a hippodrome and a stadium out there somewhere as well as an aqueduct but apparently, not much has been exposed.

It is nearly impossible to look at Gadara, Pella or Gerasa beyond the Roman influence, for these cities originally did not have any Greek roots. Since they were founded by Alexander they should be seen as a pure Macedonian concept. It is here that the first seeds of later Hellenism were planted and this makes me wonder how much of the Macedonian influence went into the Alexandria’s founded later on during Alexander’s campaigns.

Sunday, March 19, 2017

Latest e-Books - Updated March 2017

By now, it has been become entirely normal to edit an ebook beside the usual paper version. Yet, some older and even more recent books remain only available on paper.

In any case, here is the latest update of my books posted so far that are now available as an e-book as well:

Alexander the Great, Man and God” by Ian Worthington
For my earlier comments, please click on this link.

For my earlier comments, please click on this link.

For my earlier comments, please click on this link.

For my earlier comments, please click on this link.

For my earlier comments, please click on this link.

Alexander the Great. Selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch and Quintus Curtius” by James Romm
For my earlier comments, please click on this link.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

The kind of burial site which Alexander’s soldiers could afford

Derveni, located within the Thessaloniki prefecture, has revealed many treasures over the years. Today, the time is right to stop at a Macedonian burial monument that is now made accessible to the public.


The tomb is not a recent discovery as it was found in 1910 shortly before the end of the Ottoman occupation of the city. Because of this political situation, the burial monument was left unattended and suffered from one hundred years of wear and tear.

Finally, in 2011 the restoration project got underway. The tomb that carries the Ottoman name of Makridis Bey, dates from the end of the 4th/beginning of the 3rd century BC. A 15-meter long corridor leads to the monumental façade in Ionian style giving access to the burial chamber with a marble sarcophagus. The monument measures 10x8 meters and reveals an exceptional architecture.

Archaeologists have determined that the tomb was built by wealthy veteran soldiers of Alexander the Great who returned home after their service in the east and the death of their king. This is not the first burial monument of its kind that has been found in Macedonia and commissioned by a veteran soldier who made his fortune. It will be interesting to see what it really looks like, wouldn’t it?

Saturday, March 11, 2017

The treasures of Alexander the Great. How One Man’s Wealth Shaped the World by Frank Holt

Wow! That’s the one word that comes to my mind after reading The Treasures of Alexander the Great by Frank Holt (ISBN 978-0-19-995096-6). It is fabulous, meticulous, and breathtaking from cover to cover. Nobody tackled Alexander’s finances before and that is not surprising given the relatively limited facts and figures that are available.

As always, Frank Holt’s painstaking research is remarkable and the huge amount of books he consulted to extrapolate pertaining information is absolutely breathtaking.

He starts, of course, with a general overview of Alexander’s campaigns making a number of pertinent statements often overlooked by the casual reader. There is, for instance, the fact that rural economies suffered as much if not more than the cities taken by Alexander since the army helped themselves to consume the food and livestock in their path leaving the local population totally depleted; or the fact that Alexander had no intention to stimulate economic growth in the lands he occupied. A true eye-opener is the way in which he managed or mismanaged his plunder. Money as such was not important to Alexander but the reaping of treasury was. Frank Holt is able to prove that all the gold and silver amassed by the king was not turned into coinage, far from it. In antiquity, money did not play the role we know today and payments persistently were made by barter and gifts of land (for instance to the new colonists) and others.

From this study, it transpires that Alexander’s money management is far beyond comprehension and that the appointment of his boyhood friend Harpalus as treasurer was not a success (rather a disaster) since he fled just before the Battle of Issus for reasons unspecified. Alexander trusted him a second time in Ecbatana and with a treasury far beyond any amount of money anyone had ever accumulated! There are limits, even to friendship, one would say and it is hard to believe that Alexander did not exercise any form of control over his financial managers of which Harpalus is only one example – yet the worst one – as he robbed Alexander of thousands of talents and led a life that might have served as model for the Roman Emperor Nero. 

The army had lost and disposed of their wealth on two occasions and after crossing the Gedrosian Desert all was lost again and money became meaningless to the soldiers. How can Alexander not have been aware that his men were broke when they emerged from that hell? He made amends in Susa but it seems that once these soldiers reimbursed their own debts they had nothing left.

The sad conclusion is that nobody fared very well from Alexander’s campaigns, neither the Persians who lost their kings and livelihood to be ruled by foreign successors, nor the Macedonian soldiers who ended up fighting each other and were still demanding their salaries two years after the king’s death.

This great book concludes with carefully gleaned facts and figures arranged in four separate Appendixes: (1) Ancient Measures and Modern Conversions; (2) Summary of Reported Assets, from inheritance and homeland revenues, from war and diplomacy, and from tribute in conquered territories; (3) Summary of reported debts, inherited debts and specific losses and expenditures; (4) Where is it now, listing the known numismatic collections of Alexander coins. These tables are extremely useful to whoever wants to know every tiny detail and show, if needed, how thorough Frank Holt studied Alexander’s treasures.

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

A way to Revive the Museum of Raqqa in Syria

It is truly heartwarming to learn that the National Museum of Raqqa may revive thanks to a project aiming at digitally reconstructing its content. The “Focus Raqqa Project” is a joint initiative of the Syrian Directorate General of Antiquities and Museum (DGAM) and the Section Archeology of the Near East, University of Leiden (Netherlands). Together, they hope to collect all available information from many research institutes in Europe in order to create a workable database.


The entire collection of the National Museum of Raqqa, some 6,000 artifacts, is considered lost and unfortunately, no detailed inventory of these pieces of art exists. This makes identification of the objects stolen in the wake of the violence that started in 2011 very difficult (see also: The War in Syria, what will happen to its heritage?). 

Under these circumstances, the antiquities black market is thriving and the only way to stop the stolen artifacts from being sold to unknown buyers is to list them in a concrete workable digital databank where they can be clearly identified by Syrian and international police. For a start, circa 500 of the most precious objects that were stolen from the vaults of the Central Bank in Raqqa in 2013 will be put on this list.

Some pioneering work has already been carried out by the DGAM and the University of Berlin. Additionally, a detailed assessment of the museum’s recent history and collection will be made, while at the same time members of the DGAM will be trained in database management and setting up a website of the Raqqa Museum.

Eventually, this first step may lead to the reconstruction of the museum in Raqqa – let’s hope.

[Picture of the museum from this blog]

Friday, March 3, 2017

Orichalcum in the news again!

Orichalcum, a most precious metal considered second only to gold, was highly valued in antiquity but has rarely survived. This means that the recent discovery of 47 ingots of orichalcum off the south coast of Sicily deserves to be highlighted.


In a previous blog (see: Mystery about the precious orichalcum solved?), I mentioned how 39 ingots had been recovered off the south coast of Sicily from a ship that sunk in the sixth century BC just before entering the harbor of Gela. In the same blog, I explained that orichalcum is basically composed of copper and zinc that result in brass with a very shiny finish that looks like gold.

This recent recovery comes from the same area as the previous one near the entrance to the harbor of Gela, together with two Corinthian helmets, several archaic amphorae and one round bottom flask manufactured in Massalia (modern Marseilles in France). The artifacts have been dated to the end of 7th/early 6th century BC.

The ingots of orichalcum which vary in size from 17 to 32 cm and in weight from 254 to 1340 grams have been analyzed and revealed to be made from 80% of copper and 20% of zinc with traces of lead and nickel.

This discovery confirms, if needed, the richness of a city like Gela where many specialized craftsmen must have been working to produce objects of great value.