Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Dragiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum OR Termez, Afghanistan) - 328 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Friday, July 13, 2018

Carthage Antique, des origines jusqu’à l’invasion Vandale (814 BC-439 AD) by Samir Aounallah

Clip and clear, one of the best historical overviews of Carthage is to be found in this booklet, Carthage Antique, des origines jusqu’à l’invasion Vandale (Antique Carthage from its origins to the invasion of the Vandals) (814 BC-439 AD) by Samir Aounallah (ISBN 978-9973-878526).

In a concise but very transparent way, the author walks us through Punic Carthage, telling us how it disappeared, followed by the birth of another Carthage as created by the Romans after having destroyed the city about a century before, until it became the mighty Colonia Concordia Iulia Carthago.

Carthage was founded in 814 BC as a colony of Phoenician Tyre and the principal information comes from its cemeteries, the so-called tophets. Soon Carthage outshone Tyre to become a powerful nation in its own right that inevitably grew to be the envy of Rome. This led to what went down into history as The Punic Wars.

The First Punic War was fought from 264 to 241 BC mainly in and around Sicily. The Second Punic War that raged from 218 until 201 BC is probably best known for Hannibals crossing of the Alps. The decisive blow happened during the Third Punic War that lasted only three years (149-146 BC) and ended with the victory of the Romans. After the loss of hundreds and maybe thousands of soldiers on both sides, the almighty Romans thoroughly destroyed the city of Carthage.

Since the city sat on a strategic location, Octavian, the future Emperor Augustus decided in 44 BC that it should be rebuilt. So whatever poor remains were left from the Punic city were now buried underneath the new Roman metropolis, hence the complication for modern archaeologists to redefine the outlines of either city.

This booklet is an excellent attempt to sort out the widespread ruins. It contains plenty of photographs of the ruins as visible today but also many artifacts that have been moved to the Bardo Museum in Tunis and the Museum of Carthage on the spot. Several drawings, maps, reconstructive maquettes, and visualisation pictures help to create a vivid image of what this grand city once looked like. Besides, many pages contain inserts in italics quoting texts from antique writers and other historical authors.

In short, it is an excellent tool for whoever wants to visit the remains of Carthage in modern Tunisia or for those interested in a solid historical overview.

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