Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Dragiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum OR Termez, Afghanistan) - 328 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Greek bronze found in Slovakia

The rare discovery of pieces belonging to a Greek bronze relief in Slovakia is far from obvious. It happened during research carried out in 2016 and 2017 at the village of Slatina nad Bebravou not far from the Celtic settlement on the Udriana hill.


Archaeologists were able to determine that the relief was made in Taranto, Italy, in the middle of the 4th century BC and arrived in Slovakia about a century later. The shoulder board relief is said to be part of a bronze breastplate that belonged to a prominent Greek warrior. Digitization has enabled to reconstruct the entire picture which has been labeled as Hellenistic since it represents an Amazonomachy, a battle of Amazons and Greeks.

How this breastplate ended up in central Slovakia gives room for speculation but it seems plausible that it was looted from Delphi when the Celts/Gauls plundered the sanctuary in the first half of the 3rd century BC.

The fortified settlement of Udriana is one of the rare sacrificial places used by the Celts and only found in Slovakia (not in neighboring countries). It was customary for the Celts to offer precious objects, animals and even humans to their gods. All their gifts were ritually broken and burnt, and the charred bones, glass jewelry and pieces of metal like these bronzes are still there to prove it. They believed that by performing this ritual, they would release the spirits.

Archaeologists also located the sacrificial hole that would collect the blood of animals and humans. A truly bloody business, no doubt.

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