Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Dragiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum OR Termez, Afghanistan) - 328 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Friday, April 27, 2018

The harbor of Roman Naples uncovered

Metro works are ongoing in many larger cities all over Europe and Naples (Napoli) in Italy is one of them. Here archaeologists found the port of Roman Neapolis, now located three meters deep and some 200 meters inland.

The history of Naples goes back at least four thousand years but when it became part of Magna Graecia in the 6th century BC, it gained in importance and thrived for almost one thousand years. At some time during the 5th century AD, however, the harbor started to silt up and it is exactly this sand and mud that has preserved the wood of the ships that were uncovered during the subway constructions.


The archaeological team has exposed the hulls of two 11 meters long Roman ships from the 1st century AD and partial remains of five others. In the process, they recovered many personal belongings in the process like shoes, tools, dice, baskets and ropes.

The only way to preserve these vessels was to move them to a safe location in the suburb of nearby Piscinola. Here all the finds from the metro works are being stored and carefully labeled. The ships occupy a temperature controlled space of their own as they are kept submerged in cold water that is being renewed every two weeks. The smallest vessel from Neapolis has been selected for restoration at the Central Institute of Rome.

Beside the harbor, excavations have enabled to locate the exceptional temple complex that underscores the importance of the Isolympic Games instituted by Emperor Augustus in the year 2 AD. Other parts of the construction areas have yielded marble friezes and capitals, terracotta artifacts and simple everyday objects like combs, bowls, bags, spoons – all from Greek and Roman times. But the successive layers also revealed previously unknown aspects from medieval, Byzantine, Norman and Angevin times which all contribute to the rich history of Naples.

Next question is obviously what to do with the 3.3 million artifacts that have so far been accumulated in the Piscinola warehouse and how to make the remarkable ship remains accessible to the general public. This is a delicate matter as far as logistics are concerned and also financially. One of the options is to incorporate some of the objects into the metro stations proper, as has been done in Athens, for instance.

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