Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Dragiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum OR Termez, Afghanistan) - 328 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Sunday, November 5, 2017

The surprises of underwater archaeology

With the growing popularity of underwater archaeology, more and more is being known about the heavy traffic of ships crossing the Mediterranean. This is a unique way to accumulate details about the ships, their itineraries, their construction, their size and their cargo.


One of the hottest spots in recent years is the Fourni Archipelago, roughly situated between Samos and Patmos off the west coast of Turkey. The small islands and islets are scattered along the old maritime routes running from the Black Sea to the Eastern Mediterranean, to Cyprus and eventually to Egypt.

So far, The Fourni Underwater Survey has found as many as 53 shipwrecks ranging from antiquity to the Middle-Ages and even from post-Medieval times making it one of the largest concentrations of ancient shipwrecks in the world.

The first results were acquired in 2015 when 22 shipwrecks were identified, followed by another 23 in 2016 and eight more during this year’s diving season. It is great to hear that the Survey works closely together with local fishermen and sponge divers who know their fishing grounds and diving waters well. During the first two seasons, the archaeologists concentrated mainly on surveying the 17 square miles of wreckage but this year they are focusing on documenting the finds. So far, they found a great number of anchors made from stone, lead and iron which range from the Archaic Period to Byzantine times. This year, the most important find was a cargo of amphorae from the Classical Period on their way from Chios; another one is the shipwreck of a Roman ship that came from the Iberian Peninsula.

[Divers raise a Roman North African amphora for further study and conservation. 

With the help of the latest technologies, the Survey team was able to select specific artifacts and recover them for conservation and scientific analysis. They aim to make their substantial data available to researchers and the public alike.

Another diving season is planned for 2018 and in the end, they may consider the excavation and recovery of a select choice of shipwrecks. Hopefully a local museum can be created on the main island to shelter all these new treasures.

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