Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Drangiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Sunday, December 28, 2014

Zeugma’s newest mosaics

I have a weak spot for Zeugma, the city that has been nearly entirely flooded following the construction of a dam on the Euphrates River in Turkey – one dam too many if you ask me. I find it inadmissible to flood remains that have survived 2,500 years of history for the simple purpose of cultivating more land. I wrote about Zeugma some time ago under the title Zeugma,Border-town along the Euphrates River.


Zeugma was again in the news at the end of the 2014 excavation season, when it made headlines with three new mosaics that have been unearthed from the House of the Muses, which will join the other rescued floors at the Museum of Gaziantep after restoration and conservation.

The Greek Reporter has added photographs of these gorgeous mosaics: the first one representing the nine Muses framed in elegant medallions gathered around Muse Calliope (see above); the second mosaic is a well-known representation of Oceanus and Tethys (below); and the third mosaic is not shown but is described as the portrait of a young man.


According to the Hurriyet Daily News, it seems that among the 2-3,000 houses of Zeugma, “only” 25 remain under water. If we read the Greek Reporter, the story is however quite different as they state that 80% of old Zeugma is flooded (which corresponds much better to what I heard earlier). No wonder that the Mayor of Gaziantep is so optimistic when stating “I hope we will be able to unearth the whole civilization of Zeugma” – a matter of convincing your audience?

[Pictures from The Greek Reporter, except the one of Oceanus and Tethys which is from the Hurriyet Daily News. The photograph of Oceanus and Tethys in the Greek Reporter is that of an earlier excavated mosaic that is already on display at the Museum of Gaziantep].

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