Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Dragiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

A shipwreck located near Larnaca, Cyprus

Underwater archaeology is becoming more and more popular and the Mediterranean Sea situated at the core of many antique civilizations is a vast and favorite diving area.

The most recent news comes from Mazotos near Larnaca where a shipwreck from the Classical Period was discovered in 2007. It sits at a depth of 45 meters and dates from the 4th century BC.


Over the past ten years, the wreck has yielded many fascinating artifacts giving us a unique insight of the sea trade between the Aegean Sea and Cyprus. So far, it has been determined that the ship set sail in the days before Alexander the Great, most probably at the height of Classical Greek civilization. It is the kind of wreck that will provide information about seafaring, seaborne trade and shipbuilding in those days mainly because of its incredible state of preservation.

The main cargo was composed of wine amphorae, probably originating from the island of Chios, and an estimated 500 amphorae are scattered all over the nearly flat seabed. Since four layers of amphorae are still in their original stowage position and the fact that the wreck lies in the open sea led archaeologists to conclude that the ship did not capsize but that seawater filled the haul after a storm or high waves.

The wreck has also revealed a cargo of lead stocks; at least three anchors; a large number of olive pits; and even some structural timber, although most organic materials have disintegrated after so many centuries.

For now, archaeologists will continue recovering the cargo as at his depth and without the required conservation infrastructure, bringing up the vessel is not an option. We will have to wait for what else will emerge from beneath the old layers of silt and mud.

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