Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Drangiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Friday, January 1, 2016

Amos, an addition to the Loryma Peninsula

It is not really surprising to hear that no previous excavations were ever carried out at Amos – after all, there are so many antique sites on the west and southwest coastline of Turkey. But having stopped at Loryma a few years ago (see: Loryma, a Rhodian fortress, a source of inspiration), Amos pops out as a new city to be added to the list of territories ruled by Rhodes on the mainland, although the inhabitants never became Rhodian citizens. In any case, at the end of the 2nd century BC the Romans gave all of Lycia and Caria to the Rhodians whose control lasted until the 2nd century AD – making up the so-called Rhodian Peraea. The rocky and steep Loryma Peninsula lies at its very heart and this is where we find Amos, near the modern town of Turunç.


Excavations are planned to start in autumn 2016 and are estimated to be spread over three years.

Amos, meaning “the goddess temple” was known as Samnaios in Hellenistic times, and its history dates back to at least the 2nd century BC based on a rental agreement unearthed by nobody less than George Bean (see: Turkey Beyond the Maeander) in 1948. The text is very detailed as it contains precise instructions regarding the payment of the rent, the provision made by the guarantors, as well as the rules regarding the development of the property. It further specifies among others that the tenant must plant a minimum of vines and fig trees, and dig a drainage canal. In case of non-compliance penalties will apply, but fines are also claimed for cutting wood on the property, burying a corpse or encroaching on the public road.

Yet this will be the first time that serious archaeological digs will be carried out and they sound quite promising. Today we can see the half buried remains of a theatre and a good stretch of the ancient city walls that are 1.8 meter thick and stand 3.5 meter tall built in a style that is characteristic for the early Hellenistic period. The ramparts are punctuated with fortified towers and a gate on the northern side. There is also an acropolis where remains of a small temple have been located.

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