Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Dragiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Tuesday, March 3, 2015

Earthquake in Sagalassos!

Earthquakes were the cause why Sagalassos was abandoned. Noticeable was the earthquake of 518 AD, but mainly those of 644 and 661 separated by seventeen years only (see: Sagalassos in Alexander’s campaign).


Of course, Turkey is prone to earthquakes and Sagalassos is no exception, but for the archaeologists working there in the summer of 2014 is must have felt as an experience from past history. It happened during the night of 24 August 2014 while they were asleep in the nearby town of Ağlasun. The entire area was hit by two successive earthquakes. Those who ever experienced such a tremor of the earth will know that a magnitude of 5.2 is enough to shake your bones! There were two successive shocks, the last making the sound of a massive explosion. Several aftershocks followed – they always feel less threatening because one is much more aware. Interesting detail is that the faultline running through Sagalassos itself moved!

The report from the field team at Ağlasun is very lively and the reaction of the villagers could have been that of the Sagalossians some 1500 years ago. Everybody was wide awake and poured into the street to inquire about their neighbours’ well-being and that of the archaeological team from Belgium. Once it was established that there were no injuries and that buildings had suffered only small damage, the community decided to make up their beds in the open and that included the archaeologists. Two members of the team decided, however, to drive to Sagalassos to inspect their restoration projects. They found no sign of any damage, neither did they the next morning by daylight.

Strangely enough the water from the late Hellenistic well that is used by the entire team for their work and as drinking water was very turbid. In our 21st century they could drive their pick-up truck back to the village for bottled water, but the lack of drinking water must have had more serious consequences in antiquity, even in such cases when people and buildings were unharmed.

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