Alexandria's founded by Alexander

Alexandria's founded by Alexander the Great (by year BC): 334 Alexandria in Troia (Turkey) - 333 Alexandria at Issus/Alexandrette (Iskenderun, Turkey) - 332 Alexandria of Caria/by the Latmos (Alinda, Turkey) - 331 Alexandria Mygdoniae - 331 Alexandria (Egypt) - 330 Alexandria in Areia (Herat, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria of the Prophthasia/in Drangiana/Phrada (Farah, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan) - 330 Alexandria in Caucasus (Begram, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria of the Paropanisades (Ghazni, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria Eschate or Ultima (Khodjend, Tajikistan) - 329 Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum, Afghanistan) - 329 Alexandria in Margiana (Merv, Turkmenistan) - 326 Alexandria Nicaea (on the Hydaspes, India) - 326 Alexandria Bucephala (on the Hydaspes, India) - 325 Alexandria Sogdia - 325 Alexandria Rambacia (Bela, Pakistan) - 325 Alexandria Oreitide - 325 Alexandria in Opiene (confluence of Indus & Acesines, India) - 325 Alexandria on the Indus - 325 Alexandria Xylinepolis (Patala, India) - 325 Alexandria in Carminia (Gulashkird, Iran) - 324 Alexandria-on-the-Tigris/Antiochia-in-Susiana/Charax (Spasinou Charax on the Tigris, Iraq) - ?Alexandria of Carmahle? (Kahnu)

Monday, January 19, 2015

Ancient Turkey. A Travellers’ History by Seton Lloyd

Seton Lloyd is one of those rare authors able to tell a lot in a few words while not giving the impression of bombarding his readers with facts and figures.

Ancient Turkey. A Travellers’ History (ISBN 9780520220423) gives a lively overview of Turkey’s rich history from prehistoric times up to Christianity, covering the country's occupation by the Hitittes, Phrygians, Persians, Greeks and Romans.

This book is handily divided in concise chapters sharing just enough details about each ruling power to keep you on reading. You’ll find good basic information about the enigmatic Hittites in Central Anatolia; the mysterious Trojans; the power of King Midas and the wealth of King Croesus; the occupation by the Persians including Xenophon's journey of the Ten Thousand; the rise of Macedonia leading to the conquests of Alexander the Great and the spreading of Hellenism; the Roman Power and the legacy of Augustus; concluding with early Christianity in the footsteps of St Paul. Quite a chunk of history presented in a very comprehensible way.

Seton Lloyd has added several unique pictures, many of them from the days of early excavations which make them interesting to those who are more familiar with these major archaeological sites.

This is an excellent reference book that can be consulted for any time period of the rich history of Turkey.

4 comments:

  1. ANCIENT TURKEY:

    The Eurasian Invasion - Arrival of the Turks

    Armenia did not begin to take on it's modern White Turkish identity, until the 1,100s A.D. By the time of the invasions of the Turkish Seljuq peoples in the 11th century A.D, the Black Armenian kingdoms had already been destroyed from the west. The province of Taron had been annexed to the Byzantine Empire in 968 A.D, and the expansionist policy of the Byzantine emperor Basil II, finally extinguished Armenian independence. The possessions of David of Tayq were annexed in 1000 A.D, and the kingdom of Vaspurakan in 1022 A.D. In the latter year, the Bagratid king of Ani, Yovhannes-Smbat, was compelled to make the Roman emperor heir to his estates, and in 1045 A.D, despite the resistance of Gagik II, Ani was seized by the Roman Constantine IX. The Byzantine conquest was however short-lived: in 1048 A.D, The Turks arrived.

    Just as modern European White people (Germanics and Slavs) found themselves in Europe as a result of being chased westward by the Huns of Asia. The last of these Asian White people, the Turks, were likewise chased into the west by the Mongolians of Asia.

    Toghrïl Beg led the first Seljuq Turk raid into Armenia in 1064 A.D. Ani and Kars then fell to Toghrïl's nephew and heir Alp-Arslan, and after the Battle of Manzikert (1071 A.D.), most of the country was in Turkish hands. In 1072 A.D, the Turkic Kurd Shaddadids received Ani as a fiefdom. A few native Black Armenian rulers survived for a time in the Kiurikian kingdom of Lori, the Siuniqian kingdom of Baghq or Kapan, and the principates of Khachen (Artzakh) and Sasun.

    In about 1225, Ertuğrul led the Kayi tribe of the Oghuz Turks, westward into Anatolia, fleeing the Mongol onslaught. He pledged allegiance to Sultan Kayqubad I of the Seljuk principality of Rum, who gave him permission to establish an emirate and expand it if he could, into the neighboring Byzantine provinces. This location was auspicious, as the wealthy Byzantine Empire was weakening to his West, while in the east, Muslim forces under the Seljuk Turks were splintered and distracted in the face of relentless Mongol aggression and internal bickering. In the 12th century A.D, many former Armenian regions became parts of Georgia, and between 1236 and 1242 A.D, the whole of Armenia and Georgia fell into the hands of the Mongols. Baghdad had been sacked by Hulagu Khan in 1258. In 1231, Ertuğrul conquered the Nicean (Byzantine) town of Thebasion, which was renamed to Söğüt and became the initial capital of his territory.

    Ertuğrul's son Osman, became chief, or Bey, upon his father’s death in 1281. By this time, mercenaries were streaming into his realm from all over the Islamic world to fight against and hopefully plunder the weakening Byzantine empire. In addition, the Turkic population of Osman's emirate were constantly reinforced by a flood of refugees, fleeing from the Mongols. Of these, many were Ghazi warriors, or fighters for Islam, border fighters who believed they were fighting for the expansion or defense of Islam. Under the strong and able leadership of Osman, these warriors quickly proved a formidable force, and the foundations of the Empire were quickly laid.

    Osman announced the independence of his own small kingdom from the Seljuk Turks in 1299. The westward drive of the Mongol invasions had pushed scores of Turks toward Osman's Anatolian principality, a power base that Osman was quick to consolidate. As the Byzantine Empire declined, the Ottoman Empire rose to take its place.

    http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Anatolia_Turkey_2a

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for the info, but this takes me too far away from Alexander and his world.

      Delete
  2. TURKS

    Turks are Eurasians who may be any of various peoples whose members speak languages belonging to the Turkic subfamily of the Altaic family of languages. They are historically and linguistically connected with the T'u-chüeh, the name given by the Chinese to the nomadic people who in the 6th century A.D. founded an empire stretching from Mongolia and the northern frontier of China to the Black Sea. With some exceptions, notably in the European part of Turkey and in the Volga region, the Turkic peoples are confined to Asia. Their most important cultural link, aside from history and language, is that with Islam, for with the exception of the Sakha (Yakut) of eastern Siberia and the Chuvash of the Volga region of Russia, they are all Muslim.

    The Turkic peoples may be divided into two main groups: the western and the eastern. The western group includes the Turkic peoples of southeastern Europe and those of southwestern Asia inhabiting Anatolia (Turkey) and northwestern Iran. The eastern group comprises the Turkic peoples of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, and the Uighur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang in China. Turkic peoples display a great variety of ethnic types.

    Little is known about the origins of the Turkic peoples, and much of their history even up to the time of the Mongol conquests in the 10th–13th A.D. is shrouded in obscurity. Chinese documents of the 6th century A.D. refer to the empire of the T'u-chüeh as consisting of two parts, the northern and western Turks. This empire submitted to the nominal suzerainty of the Chinese T'ang dynasty in the 7th century, but the northern Turks regained their independence in 682 and retained it until 744 A.D. The Orhon inscriptions, the oldest known Turkic records (8th century A.D.), refer to this empire and particularly to the confederation of Turkic tribes known as the Oguz; to the Uighur, who lived along the Selenga River (in present-day Mongolia); and to the Kyrgyz, who lived along the Yenisey River (in north-central Russia).

    When able to escape the domination of the T'ang dynasty, these northern Turkic groups fought each other for control of Mongolia from the 8th to the 11th century, when the Oguz migrated westward into Persia and Afghanistan. In Persia the family of Oguz tribes known as Seljuqs created an empire that by the late 11th century stretched from the Amu Darya south to the Persian Gulf and from the Indus River west to the Mediterranean Sea.

    The Khazars were another ancient Turkic people who first appeared in Transcaucasia, {the transitional region between Europe and Asia, extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas.} in the 2nd century A.D, and subsequently settled in the lower Volga region. They emerged as a force in the 7th century and rose to great power. By the 8th century the Khazar empire extended from the northern shores of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Urals and as far westward as Kiev. Also in the 8th Century, the Khazars converted to the Hebrew religion and made Judaism the State religion. “Itil” the Khazar capital in the Volga delta, was a great commercial center. The Khazar Empire fell, when Sviatoslav, duke of Kiev (945–72), son of Igor and of St. Olga, defeated its army in 965 A.D. The Khazars are the progenitors of European Jewry, the entomology of the term Jew or Jewish probably relates to these people. {Hebrews were not known as Jews}.

    http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Anatolia_Turkey_2a

    ReplyDelete
  3. Turks Rule Black Lands!

    In these pages, we have made every effort to clearly say, and prove, that the White, and White-like, rulers and ruling elite in the former lands of Black civilizations, are not who they claim to be. Specifically; those of Egypt are NOT Egyptians, those of North Africa are NOT Berbers, those of Arabia are NOT Arabs, those of Palestine are NOT Hebrews, those of Lebanon are NOT Phoenicians, those of Iraq are NOT Mesopotamian's, those of Iran are NOT Persians or Elamites, those of Turkey are NOT Anatolians - THEY ARE ALL CENTRAL ASIAN TURKS!

    That said with the understanding that in earlier times, Greeks and Romans settled in these areas: and in North Africa, they were followed by Alan's, Vandals, and Goths. And also in the 19th. century, French and Italians invaded, and settled in North Africa. And with the understanding that when the Turks of the Ottoman Empire, relinquished hegemony over those lands after WW I, they and the European powers, merely handed control over to local Turk elites.

    But understanding that our say-so, and proofs, may be insufficient for some: We quote the eminent François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette (1821 – 1881) French scholar, Archaeologist, Egyptologist, and the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. We quote from his book:

    "OUTLINES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HISTORY"

    TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES, BY MARY BRODRICK
    With, an Introductory Note by William C. Winslow, D.D., D.C.L.
    LL.D., Vice-President of the Egypt Exploration Fund for the United States

    CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK, 1892

    Page 28

    Here he is discussing the origins of the Hyksos:

    Quote:

    "How often do we see in Eastern monarchies and even in European states a difference of origin between the ruling class, to which the royal family belongs, and the mass of the people! We need not leave Western Asia and Egypt; we find there Turks ruling over nations to the race of which they do not belong, although they have adopted their religion. In the same way as the Turks of Baghdad, who are Finns, now reign over Semites, Turanian kings may have led into Egypt and governed a population of mixed origin where the Semitic element was prevalent. If we consider the mixing up of races which took place in Mesopotamia in remote ages, the invasions which the country had to suffer, the repeated conflicts of which it was the theatre, there is nothing extraordinary that populations coming out of this land should have presented a variety of races and origins."

    How grotesque then, that the Turk, Zahi Hawass, the Vice Minister of Culture in Egypt: makes pronouncements about the non-Black nature of ancient Egyptians. When he does so, only to hide the true nature of his own people, and the illegitimacy of their presence in, and rule over Egypt.

    http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Anatolia_Turkey_2a

    ReplyDelete